Cyanobacterial mats, black cherts, microbialites, taphonomy and paleobiology of acritarchs, paleogeomicrobiology, biosedimentology
Generally speaking my current research focuses on the biochemical interactions between microorganisms and their environment. This knowledge provides a framework for understanding how microorganisms have influenced their environment throughout time. This work applies directly to biogeological studies of life on Earth and other planets.
I started my research career with study on acritarchs from the Ordovician - Silurian boundary in the Holy Cross Mts. (central Poland). During this investigation I became familiar with early Silurian black radiolarian cherts cropping out in the Holy Cross Mts. (central Poland) and in Sudetes (southwestern Poland). In the radiolarian cherts I found exceptionally preserved remains of benthic coccoid cyanobacterial mats with morphologically preserved cells and mucilage envelops. This discovery focused my research on fossil cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial mats on which I grounded my Ph.D. studies. My studies have shown that the role of cyanobacteria in ancient marine benthic ecosystems and their importance in carbon assimilation and accumulation in past marine environments was much greater than has been thus far recognized. The depositional environment of early Silurian black cherts and the role of cyanobacteria in biosphere evolution is still the basic part of my research.
Research on biodegradation and thermal alteration of organic matter has been another part of my research activity. The fossil record contains a great variety of organic molecules, that derive from marine algae, cyanobacteria, and other bacteria, and terrestrial organisms. These molecules (biomarkers) contain information, which gives insight in past life and environment. Unfortunately, the biochemical molecules are not resistant to diagenetic processes that alter their primary structure. Therefore, the organic matter from thermally altered sedimentary rocks is usually strongly changed and biomarkers extraction is extremely difficult. On this study I am working with Professor Józef Kazmierczak in cooperation with scientist from NIOZ Texel (The Netherlands).
I am also working with Professor Józef Kazmierczak (in cooperation with Danish and Dutch microbiologists and German geologists) on improving our knowledge on calcification of cyanobacterial mats. In highly CaCO3 saturated environment cyanobacterial mats produce different morphs of calcium and aragonite crystals. Recognition of this mechanism is a key to a more precise understanding of stromatolites lamination and microbialites formation.
An important part of my research are microproblematics - a small fossils of unknown origin (especially mazuelloids, calcisphers and nannoconids ). I am studying the role of mineralization in their formation.
My present research aims to elucidate, on morphological and nanostructural grounds, the mineralization processes which lead to the formation of sedimentary macro- and microfossil-like structures comparable to Earth’s oldest (Archean) traces of life.
2000 - 2001
Paleozoic calcispheres: Origin, taphonomy and significance in microfacies analysis (Ministry of Science and Higher Education) The project concerned uniquely preserved late Devonian calcispheres which were found in a core of the deep borehole Sosnowiec IG-1 (Upper Silesia, southern Poland). These enigmatic calcareous microfossils were interpreted as acritarchs that underwent an early post-mortem calcification. Remnants of organic walls preserved in the calcispheres revealed that these mineral structures represent in fact various acanthomorphic acritarchs, characteristic members of the Palaeozoic marine phytoplankton. Taphonomic analysis combined with the light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of mineral and organic components of the investigated calcispheres showed that a complex multi-stage process led to calcification of their in vivo non-mineralized acritarch forerunners. The ubiquity of acanthomorphic calcispheres in many Devonian shallow-water limestones has proved to be a testimony to little, thus far, documented acritarch crops that must have existed over extensive areas of carbonate-producing epicontinental seas.
2000 - 2003
The role of microorganisms in rock-formation and biosphere evolution (Foundation of Polish Science) The main purpose of the project was to evaluate the geological significance of cyanobacteria and particularly cyanobacterial mats. The oldest cellular remains of cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae" of older authors) have been identified in early Archean sediments almost 3.5 Ga old. Cyanobacteria only exceptionally, however, are preserved as carbonaceous cellular fossils. They leave their geological imprint as biosedimentary structures called microbialites (mostly referred to stromatolites). Similarly as their modern counterparts, ancient microbialites originated either as the result of trapping and binding of sediment particles by benthic cyanobacterial mats or due to in vivo and/or early post mortem precipitation of various minerals (mainly carbonates or silicates) in the cyanobacterial biomass. Planetary distribution of various marine sediments which origin can be directly or indirectly attributed to the presence of benthic cyanobacterial mats indicates a crucial role of these microorganisms in the evolution of Earth's biosphere. Within the frame of the project a variety of environments supporting development and mineralization of cyanobacterial mats was presented on selected modern examples (marine: North Sea, quasi-marine: Indonesia, and alkaline lacustrine: Turkey). It has been show that fossil cyanobacterial mats can be used as credible paleoenvironmental indicators. Ecophysiological observations of modern cyanobacterial mats, combined with mineralogical, geochemical, and taphonomical analyses of fossil cyanobacterial microbialites permitted reconstruction of some fundamental paleoenvironmental parameters as: bathymetry, illumination, redox potential, pH-range, metal stress and eutrophication level. Extremely shallow-water (intertidal) calcareous cyanobacterial stromatolites from late Archean of South Africa and relatively deep water siliceous cyanobacterial mats from early Silurian of southern Poland (Holy Cross Mts. and Sudetes) were illustrated as examples of significantly different paleoenvironments occupied by ancient cyanobacterial mats.
2004 - 2005
Cyanobacterial mats from early Silurian siliceous sediments of the Holy Cross Mountains and Sudetes (Ministry of Science and Higher Education) The purpose of the project was to provide biosedimentological and geomicrobiological analyses of early Silurian black laminated radiolarian cherts and siliceous shales exposed in the Holy Cross Mountains and Sudetes (Poland). Deposits of that kind have been traditionally interpreted as products of deep, hemipelagic or pelagic marine environment characterized by anoxia or oxygen deficiency of the bottom waters. Massive occurrence of benthic coccoid cyanobacterial mats discovered in these siliceous rocks permitted a radical reinterpretation of their genesis and sedimentary environment.
2006 - 2008
Modern calcareous microbialites from lake Alchichica, Mexico: model structures for studies on morphogenesis of Precambrian microbialites (Ministry of Science and Higher Education) The purpose of the project is to investigate structure, ultrastructure and growth processes (accretion) of modern calcareous cyanobacterial microbialites of the sodic crater lake Alchichica (State Puebla, Mexico) coupled with its hydrochemistry (particularly the state of its carbonate system) and hydrological cycle. Detailed microbiological, taphonomical, mineralogical and geochemical (EDS, BSE) analyses of the microbialites are planned, with the account of biological, hydrochemical and hydrological results achieved by previous researchers. Biomolecular techniques for taxonomical identification of the microbiota taking part in the formation of the microbialites will be used, along with hydrochemical, electronomicroscopic and ultrastructural analytical and imaging methods. The microbialites from Alchichica lake will be used as model structures for explaining morphogenesis of Precambrian microbialites (stromatolites and thrombolites) on the examples of specimens from Archean sequences of South Africa (Kaapvaal Craton) and from Proterozoic formations of Spitsbergen.
2006 - 2008
Origins of carbonates in archaean microbial ecosystems International project between Poland and RSA. Coordinators Prof. Patrick G. Eriksson, Department of Geology, University of Pretoria and Prof. Józef Kazmierczak, Institute of Paleobiology, Poland, investigator from Polish side. The project aims at investigation of Archean stromatolitic carbonates as analogues of Paleozoic and modern cyanobacterial microbialites. The objectives are to understand the processes of microbial carbonate formation in the habitats of early Earth and to distinguish biological and non-biological processes and products of Archean carbonate precipitation.
Kaźmierczak, J. , Kremer, B., Altermann, W., Franchi, I. 2016. Tubular microfossils from ∼2.8 to 2.7 Ga-old lacustrine deposits of South Africa: A sign for early origin of eukaryotes? Precambrian Research 286: 180–194. [text - journal site]
Delarue, F., Rouzaud, J-N., Derenne, S., Bourbin, M.,
Westall, F., Kremer, B.,
Sugitani, K., Deldicque, D., Robert, F. 2016. The
Raman-derived carbonization continuum: a tool to select the
best preserved molecular structures in Archean
kerogens. Astrobiology 16, (6): 407-417. [text - journal site]
Surmik, D., Boczarowski, A., Balin, K., Dulski, M., Szade, J., Kremer, B., Pawlicki, R. 2016. Spectroscopic studies on organic matter from Triassic reptile bones, Upper Silesia, Poland. PLOS One 11(3): e0151143. [text - journal site]
Owocki, K., Kremer, B., Wrzosek, B., Królikowska, A., Kaźmierczak, J. 2016 Fungal Ferromanganese Mineralisation in Cretaceous Dinosaur Bones from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia. PLOS ONE 11(2): e0146293. [text - journal site]
Kaźmierczak, J., Fenchel, T., Kühl, M., Kempe, S., Kremer, B., Łącka, B., Małkowski, K. 2015. CaCO3 Precipitation in Multilayered Cyanobacterial Mats: Clues to Explain the Alternation of Micrite and Sparite Layers in Calcareous Stromatolites. Life 03/2015; 5(1):744-769. [text - journal site]
Kazmierczak, J., Kempe, S., Kremer,
B. 2013. Calcium in the early evolution of living
systems: a biohistorical approach. Current Organic Chemistry
17, 1738-1750, Bussum.
The paper was realized within the Homing Plus programme of Foundation for Polish Science, cofinanced from European Union, Regional Development Fund.
Bourbin, M., Gourier, D., Derenne, S., Binet, L., Le Du, Y., Westall, F., Kremer, B., Gautret, P. 2013. Dating Carbonaceous Matter in Archean Cherts by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. Astrobiology 13: 151-162. [text - journal site]
Kremer, B., Owocki,
K., Królikowska, A., Wrzosek, B., Kazmierczak, J. 2012.
Mineral microbial structures in a bone of the Late
Cretaceous dinosaur Saurolophus angustirostris from the Gobi
Desert, Mongolia — a Raman spectroscopy study.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 358-360:
51-61. [text - journal site]
Kazmierczak, J., Kremer,
B., Racki, G. 2012. Late Devonian marine anoxia
challenged by benthic cyanobacterial mats. Geobiology 10,
371–383. [text - journal site]
Kazmierczak, J., Łukomska-Kowalczyk, M. Kempe, S. 2012
Calcification and silicification: Fossilization potential of
cyanobacteria from stromatolites of Niuafo‘ou’s caldera
lakes (Tonga) and implications for the early fossil record.
Astrobiology 12: 535-548 [cover photo]. [text - journal site].
The paper was realized within the Homing Plus programme of Foundation for Polish Science, cofinanced from European Union, Regional Development Fund.
Kremer, B., Bauer, M., Stark, R.W., Gast, N., Altermann, W., Gursky, H-J., Heckl, W.M., Kazmierczak, J. 2012. Laser-Raman and atomic force microscopy assessment of the chlorococcalean affinity of problematic microfossils. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 43: 32-39. [text - journal site]
Zatoń, M., Kremer, B., Marynowski, L., Wilson, M.A., Krawczyński, W. 2012. Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) encrusted oncoids from the Polish Jura, southern Poland. Facies 58: 57-77. [text - journal site]
Kazmierczak, J., Kempe, S., Kremer, B., López-García, P., Moreira, D., Tavera, R. 2011. Hydrochemistry and microbialites of the alkaline crater Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Facies 57: 543-570. [text - journal site]
Kremer, B. 2011. High productivity of early Silurian sea evidenced by post-bloom macroaggregates. Sedimentary Geology 240: 115-122. [text - journal site]
Marynowski, L., Rakociński, M., Borcuch, E., Kremer, B., Schubert, B.A., Jahren, A.H. 2011. Molecular and petrographic indicators of redox conditions and bacterial communities after the F/F mass extinction (Kowala, Holy Cross Mountains, Poland). Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 306: 1-14. [text - journal site]
Bauersachs, T., Kremer, B., Schouten, S., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. 2009. Biomarker and δ15N study of thermally altered Silurian cyanobacterial mats. Organic Geochemistry 40: 149-157. [text - journal site]
Kazmierczak, J., Altermann, W., Kremer, B., Kempe, S., and Eriksson, PG. 2009. Mass occurrence of benthic coccoid cyanobacteria and their role in the production of carbonates in Neoarchean of South Africa. Precambrian Research 9: 731-743.
Kazmierczak J. & Kremer, B., 2009: Spore-like bodies in early Paleozoic acritarchs: clues to chlorococcalean affinities. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54: 541-551. [text - journal site]
Kazmierczak J. & Kremer, B. 2009: Thermally altered Silurian cyanobacterial mats: a key to Earth’s oldest fossils". Astrobiology 9: 731-743. [text - journal site]
Kremer, B., Kazmierczak, J. & Stal, J.L. 2008. Calcium carbonate precipitation in cyanobacterial mats from sandy tidal flats of the North Sea. Geobiology 6: 46-56.
Kremer, B. & Kazmierczak, J. 2006. Perspektywy poszukiwań życia na Marsie [Perspectives of search for life on Mars]. Kosmos nr 4, 365-380. [in Polish]
Kazmierczak, J. & Kremer, B. 2006. Astropaleobiologia: perspektywy poszukiwań dawnego życia poza Ziemią [Astropaleobiology: perspectives in search for the past extraterrestrial life] .In: Ferrari, F. & Szuszkiewicz, E. (Eds.) Astrobiologia. Poprzez pył kosmiczny do DNA [Astrobiology. Through Cosmic Dust to DNA]. Uniw. Szczeciń. Rozprawy i Studia T. 600, Szczecin, 121-144. - Chapter in Polish book on astrobiology [in Polish].
Kremer, B. 2006. Mat-forming coccoid cyanobacteria from early Silurian marine deposits of Sudetes, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 51: 143-154.
Kazmierczak, J. & Kremer, B. 2005. Early post-mortem calcified Devonian acritarchs as a source of calcispheric structures. Facies 51: 554-565. [text - journal site]
Kremer, B. 2005. Mazuelloids: Product of post-mortem phosphatized acanthomorphic acritarchs. Palaios 20: 27-36. [text - journal site]
Kremer, B. & Kazmierczak, J. 2005. Cyanobacterial mats from Silurian black radiolarian cherts: phototrophic life at the edge of darkness? Journal of Sedimentary Research 75: 897-906. [text - journal site]
Kazmierczak, J. & Kremer, B. 2004. The Saga Begins. Search for ancient and extraterrestrial life forms. Academia. The Magazine of the Polish Academy of Sciences. 1: 16-19.
Kazmierczak, J. & Kremer, B. 2003. Controversy about Earth's oldest life. Bulletin Polish Academy of Sciences, p. 57-59. [in Polish]
Kazmierczak J. & Kremer, B. 2002. Thermal alteration of Earth's oldest fossils. Nature 420, 477-478. [text - journal site]
Kremer, B. 2001. Acritarchs from the Upper Ordovician of southern Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 46, 595-601.
Cackowska M., Bąbel M., Kremer B. 2016. Inkluzje mikroorganiczne w gipsach szablastych Ponidzia. W: Olszewska-Nejbert D., Filipek A., Bąbel M., Wysocka A. (red.), Granice sedymentologii, 6 Polska Konferencja Sedymentologiczna POKOS 6, Materiały konferencyjne: Przewodnik sesji terenowych, Streszczenia referatów i posterów, Materiały do warsztatów, 28.06-01.07.2016 Chęciny – Rzepka, s. 156-157.
Owocki, K., Kremer, B.,
Bocherens, H., 2016. Sezonowe zmiany środowiska zapisane w
izotopach tlenu i węgla ze szkliwa zębów Tarbosaurus bataar
(późna kreda, Mongolia). XXIII Konferencji Naukowej Sekcji
Paleontologicznej PTG Abstrakty, 21-23 września 2016,
Poznań, s. 83.
Kremer, B., Kazmierczak, J., Fenchel, T., Kuhl, M., Kempe S. 2015. Lamination of in situ calcified cyanobacterial mats: Lesson from cultured multilayered marine microbial communities. Abstract Book of 31st IAS Meeting of Sedimentology, 22-25 June, 2015, Krakow, Poland.
Owocki, K., Niedźwiedzki, G., Kremer,
B. 2015. Oxygen and strontium isotopic study of
tooth enamel in Tarbosaurus bataar – palaeoenvironmental and
palaeoecological record or diagenetic overprint? Conference:
13th Annual Meeting of the European Association of
Vertebrate Palaeontologists, At Opole, Poland, 8-12 July
2015, Volume: Abstract book.
Kremer, B., Kazmierczak, J., Babel, M. 2014. Authigenic silicates associated with microbial organic matter in Early Silurian siliceous rocks from Poland. GeoShale Conference, Recent advances in geology of fine-grained sediments, 24-26 September 2014, Warszawa, Book of Abstracts, p.62.
Kremer, B., Kazmierczak, J., Kempe, S., Babel, M. 2014. The role of cyanobacterial mats in precipitation of authigenic silicates. IAS Sedimentological Congress 2014, Geneva, Switzerland 18-22 August 2014.
Bąbel, M., Yatsyshyn, A. Ługowski, D., Nejbert, K., Olszewska-Nejbert, D., Bogucki, A., Kremer, B. 2014. Swelling caves in the weathering zone of anhydrite rocks at Pisky, western Ukraine. IAS Sedimentological Congress 2014, Geneva, Switzerland 18-22 August 2014.
Kazmierczak, J., Kempe, S., Kremer,
B., Owocki, K. 2013. Coated volcanic glass shards
as planetary biosignatures: Sub-recent and Paleoarchean
examples. Conference Proceeding, 13th European Workshop on
Astrobiology, 22-25 July 2013 CASA, University of Szczecin:
Kazmierczak, J., Kremer,
B., Altermann, W., Franchi, I. 2013. Eukaryote-like
microfossils from the Neoarchean (~2.7 Ga) Sodium Group
(Ventersdorp Supergroup) of South Africa. The International
Biogeoscience Conference 2013 Nagoya, Japan (Revealing the
biotic diversity of the early earth and the evolution of
cyanobacteria and eukaryotes) – November 1st-4th , at Nagoya
University, Japan. Program & Abstracts: 27.
Kazmierczak, J. 2012 T Earth’s earliest planktonic ecosystem
evidenced from ~ 3.4 Ga Kromberg Fm (S. Africa). 29th IAS
Meeting of Sedimentology, 10 - 13 September 2012,
Babel M., Kremer B. 2012
Earliest evaporites: Archean to Mesoproterozoic record. 29th
IAS Meeting of Sedimentology, 10 - 13 September 2012,
Kremer, B. 2012 The origin of the early Silurian black cherts. 29th IAS Meeting of Sedimentology, 10 - 13 September 2012, Schladming, Austria
Kremer, B. 2012 Origin of organic matter in the early Silurian cherts and siliceous shales of Poland. GeoShale International Conference, Recent advances in geology of fine-grained sediments, 14-16 May 2012, Warsaw
Kremer, B., Bauersachs, T., Kaźmierczak, J. 2012 Lipid biomarkers and δ15N as geochemical tracers of organic matter in Early Silurian siliceous shales of Poland. GeoShale conference, Recent advances in geology of fine-grained sediments,14-16 May 2012, Warsaw
Kremer, B., Kazmierczak, J. 2012 Characterization of organic matter from the Silurian siliceous shales of Poland. AAPG Conference: Unconventional Gas Shales in Poland: A Look at the Science, 10-11 May 2012, Warsaw, Poland
Kremer, B., Kaźmierczak, J., Kempe, S. 2011. Deciphering the early fossil record of cyanobacterial mats based on their mode of mineralization. Goldschmidt 2011, Prague, Czech Republic, August 14-19, 2011.
Kremer, B., Kaźmierczak, J., Lukomska-Kowalczyk, M., Kempe, S. 2011. Fossilization potential of stromatolite-forming cyanobacteria from alkaline caldera lakes of Niuafo'ou Island, Tonga, Workshop on Geobiology in Space Exploration, Marrakech, Morocco - February 7 - 9, 2011.
Kaźmierczak, J. and Kremer, B. 2011. Micro-concretionary structures with microbial nuclei as planetary biosignatures, Workshop on Geobiology in Space Exploration, Marrakech, Morocco - February 7 - 9, 2011.
Łukomska-Kowalczyk, M., Kremer, B., Kaźmierczak,J., Kempe, S. 2011. Fossilization of modern benthic cyanobacteria exemplified by stromatolites from alkaline volcanic lakes of Niuafo’ou Island (Tonga, South Pacific). 30th International Conference of the Polish Phycological Society “The past, present and future of phycological research. Its significance for man and environment protection”, Wroclaw, May 19-21, 2011.
Bourbin, M., Derenne, S, Gourier, D., Rouzaud, J-N, Kremer, B., Westall, F., Robert, F. 2011. Biogeochemical study of Silurian and Precambrian cherts: reassessing the use of EPR for the dating of kerogen in Precambrian cherts. Origins 2011 -- ISSOL & Bioastronomy Joint International Conference, Montpellier, France, July 3-8, 2011.
Kremer, B., Kazmierczak, J., Bauer, M., Stark, R.W. 2010. A confocal Raman proxy for affinities and fossilization mode of Silurian acritarchs. Goldschmidt Conference 2010, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA, June 13-18, 2010, Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 12, A539
Kremer, B. and Kazmierczak, B. 2010. Degradation spectra of Early Silurian coccoid cyanobacterial mats: Significance for identifying traces of oldest life, SEPM Field Conference on Microbial Mats in siliciclastic Deposits (Archean to Today), Denver, USA, May 21 - 23, 2010.
Oehlerich, M., C. Mayr, E. Griesshaber, C. Ohlendorf, B. Zolitschka, N. Sánchez-Pastor, Kremer, B., M. Fey, A. Lücke, O. Oeckler and W. W. Schmahl 2010 Occurrences of Ikaite and pseudomorphs after Ikaite in Patagonian lakes – crystal morphologies and stable isotope composition. European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. Vienna, Austria, 02 – 07 May 2010.
Lehnert, O., Kremer, B., Fatka, O., Kraft, P., Frýda, J., Dobeš, P., Kaźmierczak, J. Cerný, P., Mařík, K. (2010): Yellowstone-like microbial environments in Tremadocian hydrothermal vent systems at the northern Gondwana margin (Prague Basin, Czech Republic). 80. Jahrestagung der Paläontologischen Gesellschaft in München, 05.-08.10.2010. Zitteliana, Reihe B, 29: 69.
Lehnert, O., Kremer, B., Fatka, O., Kraft, P., Frýda, J., Dobeš, P., Kaźmierczak, J. Cerný, P., Mařík, K. (2010): Tremadocian microbial hydrothermal vent communities in an intra-continental setting (Prague Basin, Czech Republic). In Hoppe, A., Röhlich, H.-G. & Schüth, C. (eds.): GeoDarmstadt 2010 – Geosciences secure the future. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 68: 356.
Kempe, S., Kazmierczak, J., Kremer, B., López-García, P., Moreira, D., Tavera, R., Henschel, H-V. 2010. Hydrochemistry and microbialites of Alchichica Crater Lake (Puebla, Mexico): importance for understanding the early ocean chemistry. In Hoppe, A., Röhlich, H.-G. & Schüth, C. (eds.): GeoDarmstadt 2010 – Geosciences secure the future. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 68: 350.
Kazmierczak, J., Altermann, W., Kremer, B., Kempe, S., Eriksson, P.G. 2009. Cyanobacterial origin of fine-grained carbonates from the Neoarchean Nauga Formation of South Africa. IAS 2009 Italy, 20-24 September, Sardynia, Italy.
Bąbel M., Olszewska-Nejbert, D., Bogucki, A., Kremer, B. & Yatsyshyn, A. 2009. Gypsum microbialite domes with asymmetric selenite covers (Badenian of Ukraine) and their significance for brine paleocurrent analysis. IAS 2009 Italy, 20-24 Septemb.r, Sardynia, Italy.
Oehlerich, MB., Sánchez-Pastor, N., Mayr, Ch., Kremer, B., Griesshaber, E. Schmahl, WW., Lücke, A., Ohlendorf, Ch., Zolitschka, B., pasado science team. 2009. On the Study of Natural and Synthetic Ikaite Crystals. XXIX Reunión de la Sociedad Espańola de Mineralogía, 9-12 de September 2009, Salamanca, Spain.
Kremer, B., Bauer, M., Kazmierczak, J., Gast, N., Stark, RW., Altermann, W., Gursky, H-J., & Heckl WM. 2009. Atomic Force Microscopy in Paleontology: imaging of Silurian microfossils. AFM Forum, 1-3 July 2009, Munich, Germany.
Kazmierczak, J.,P. López-Garcia, R. Tavera, S. Kempe, B. Kremer, D. Moreira, 2008. Modern and sub-recent carbonate microbialites from the alkaline lake Alchichica, Mexico - In: J. Reitner, N-V. Quéric & M. Reich (eds), Geobiology of Stromatolites, International Kalkowsky-Symposium, Abstract Volume and Field Guide, p. 85-88. Kalkowsky Conference, 5-8 October 2008, Gottingen, Germany.
Gérard, E., Moreira, D., Ibrahimi, M., Benzerara, K., Kazmierczak, J.,Kremer, B., Tavera, R., Kempe, S. and López-García, P. 2008. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and molecular identification of cyanobacteria in microbialites of the alkaline crater lake Alchichica (Mexico) In: J. Reitner, N-V. Quéric & M. Reich (eds), Geobiology of Stromatolites, International Kalkowsky-Symposium, Abstract Volume and Field Guide, p. 69-70. Kalkowsky Conference, 5-8 October 2008, Gottingen, Germany.
Bąbel, M., Olszewska-Nejbert, D., Kremer, B. Bogucki, A., Yatsyshyn, A., Sliwinski, M. 2008. Gypsum microbialites from the Badenian of the Carpathian Foredeep In: J. Reitner, N-V. Quéric & M. Reich (eds), Geobiology of Stromatolites, International Kalkowsky-Symposium, Abstract Volume and Field Guide, p. 44-46. Kalkowsky Conference, 5-8 October 2008, Gottingen, Germany.
Kazmierczak, J., Altermann, W., Kremer, B., Kempe, S. and Eriksson PG. 2008. Late Archean mineralised cyanobacterial mats and their modern analogs. European Planetary Science Congress, 21-26 September 2008, Münster, Germany.
Kremer, B., Kazmierczak, J. Bauersachs, T. Schouten, S., Sinninghe-Damste, JS. 2008. Thermally altered Silurian cyanobacterial mats: clues for interpreting traces of Archean life - Mid-term conference on the RNP Archean Environment: the habitat of early life, 11-13 April, Vienna, Austria.
Kremer, B. 2008. Fossil record of marine blooms: a testimony of past seas productivity. In: Pisera, A., Bitner, M.A. & Halamski, A. (eds), 9th Paleontological Conference, Warszawa, 10-11 October 2008. Abstracts, p. 49.
Bauersachs, T., Schouten, S., Sinninghe Damste, J.S. & Kremer, B. 2007. Thermally altered early Silurian cyanobacterial mats: biomarkers and 15N isotopic signatures. Abstract, Goldschmidt Symposium 19-24 August, 2007 Cologne, Geochim. Cosm. Acta 2007
Kremer, B., Kazmierczak, J. & Stal, L.J. 2007. Calcium carbonate precipitates from cyanobacterial mats of the North Sea barrier island. Abstract for the 17th Symposium of the International Association for Cyanophyte Research, 25-29 June, 2007 Merida, México.
Kremer, B. 2007. Fossil Stanieria-like cyanobacteria from Early Silurian cherts of Poland. Abstract for the17th Symposium of the International Association for Cyanophyte Research, 25-29 June, 2007 Merida, México.
Kazmierczak, J., Kuhl, M., Fenchel, T., Lacka, B., Malkowski, K., Kempe, S., Kremer, B., Kulicki, C. and Kuzniarski, M. 2005. Calcification of cultured marine cyanobacterial mats: an example from Oresund, Denmark. Vienna.
Kazmierczak, J. & Kremer, B. 2004. Post-mortem calcified planktonic microbs: a source of calcareous deposits in ancient seas. In: R. Pena dos Reis, P. Callapez & P. Dinis (eds.), 23rd IAS Meeting of sedimentology Coimbra - Portugal, Abstracts Book, p. 156.
Kremer, B. 2004. Fossil record of post-bloom microagreggates: A testimony of ancient seas productivity. In: International Workshop on Geomicrobiology "a research area in progress". January 28 to 31, 2004. University of Aarhus, Denmark. Programme, Abstracts & Information, p. 59.
Kremer, B. 2004. Early diagenetic phosphatization of Early Silurian acritarch-like microbes. In: R. Pena dos Reis, P. Callapez & P. Dinis (eds.), 23rd IAS Meeting of sedimentology Coimbra - Portugal, Abstracts Book, p. 161.
Kremer, B. 2003. Modes of degradation of silicified coccoid cyanobacterial mats from early Silurian black radiolarian cherts of Poland. 8th international Symposium on Fossil Algae, Abstracts, Granada, 18-20 September 2003, Spain, p. 32.
Bąbel, M & Kremer, B. 2002 (for the year 2000). Tropical karst of southern China (Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan). Geomorphological Conference, University of Lvov, October 2000, Ukraine p. 188-191. (in Polish)
Kazmierczak J. & Kremer, B. 2002. Significance of cyanobacterial mats in the evolution of biosphere. In. J. Matula, M. Pietryka & D. Richter (eds.) Glony różnych ekosystemów - problemy ochrony, ekologii i taksonomii. Symposium materials, XXI Algological Symposium of Polish Phycological Society, June 2002, Karpacz, Poland, p. 32-33.
Kremer, B. & Kazmierczak J. 2002. Degradational spectra of silicified benthic coccoid cyanobacteria from early Silurian black laminated cherts (lidytes) of Poland. In. A.Y. Rozanov, J. Lipps & R. Hoover (eds.) Bacterial Paleontology Abstracts of the International Conference 21-23 May 2002, Moscow, p. 47.
Kremer, B. & Kazmierczak J. 2001. Devonian calcified acritarchs (calcispheres): A key to Mesozoic nannoconids? In: U.G. Wortmann & H. Funk (eds.), Abstracts & Programme of the 21st Meeting of the International Association of Sedimentologists (IAS 2001), 3-5 September 2001, Davos, Switzerland, p. 180-181.
Kazmierczak J. & Kremer, B. 2001. Early diagenetically calcified Devonian acritarchs: A source of calcispheric structures. In: U.G. Wortmann & H. Funk (eds.), Abstracts & Programme of the 21st Meeting of the International Association of Sedimentologists (IAS 2001), 3-5 September 2001, Davos, Switzerland, p. 176.
Kremer, B. 2001. Late Ordovician/Early Silurian laminated cherts (lydites) from central Poland: retreat from anoxic depositional environment. In: J.J Alvaro & T. Servais (eds.) Early Palaeozoic Palaeogeographies and Biogeographies of Western Europe and North Africa, 24-26 September 2001, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France, p. 36.
Kazmierczak, J. & Kremer, B. 2000. Problemy taksonomii i ekologii w badaniach paleoalgologicznych. Symposium materials XIX Algological Symposium of Polish Phycological Society, Tleń 2000, Bydgoszcz, Poland; p. 31-33.
Institute of Paleobiology PAS
ul. Twarda 51/55
PL-00-818 Warsaw, POLAND
phone (+48 22) 6978-886; room 144